What is Whooping Cough (Pertussis)? Which Test Kits Are Used to Diagnose Whooping Cough (Pertussis)? - Vitrosens Biotechnology - Human and Animal Health Rapid Test Kits

What is Whooping Cough (Pertussis)? Which Test Kits Are Used to Diagnose Whooping Cough (Pertussis)?

25 December 2023

Whooping cough, scientifically known as pertussis, is a highly contagious respiratory infection that has been a cause for concern in the realm of public health. This bacterial disease primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe coughing fits that can be both persistent and debilitating. In this blog, we will delve into the intricacies of whooping cough, exploring its symptoms, causes, prevention, and the diagnosis methods.

Understanding Whooping Cough:

Whooping cough is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The bacteria attach to the cilia (tiny hair-like extensions) that line part of the upper respiratory system, releasing toxins that damage the cilia and lead to inflammation. The result is a persistent and severe cough, often accompanied by a distinctive “whooping” sound during inhalation after a coughing fit.

Image of Bordetella pertussis the causative agent of Whooping Cough
Image of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of Whooping Cough

Symptoms:

  1. Coughing Spells: The hallmark symptom of whooping cough is prolonged coughing spells that can last for weeks. These fits can be so intense that they lead to vomiting and exhaustion.
  2. Whooping Sound: The characteristic whooping sound occurs when the individual gasps for air after a coughing fit. However, not everyone with whooping cough produces this sound.

    Symptoms of Whooping Cough Pertussis
    Symptoms of Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
  3. Cold-like Symptoms: In the early stages, symptoms may resemble those of a common cold, including a runny nose, sneezing, and a mild cough.
  4. Fever: A low-grade fever is also a common symptom of whooping cough.

Transmission of Whooping Cough

Whooping cough is highly contagious and spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. People of all ages can contract the disease, but it is particularly severe in infants, who may experience complications such as pneumonia or even death.

Spread of the bacterium Bordetella pertussis through coughs and sneezes
Spread of the bacterium Bordetella pertussis through coughs and sneezes

Epidemiology of Pertussis

The epidemiology of whooping cough (pertussis) reveals a multifaceted landscape shaped by factors such as distribution, age, and gender. Pertussis, characterized by its cyclical patterns, exhibits a global presence with varying incidence rates across diverse geographical regions. While the disease can affect individuals of all ages, its impact is most pronounced in infants, particularly those below six months, who face a heightened risk of severe complications. Pertussis incidence tends to follow a cyclical pattern, with peaks occurring every 3-5 years, and its prevalence can vary significantly between countries.

This graph shows reported pertussis incidence per 100000 persons by age group in the United States from 1990–2021 according to the CDC.
This graph shows reported pertussis incidence (per 100,000 persons) by age group in the United States from 1990–2021, according to the CDC.

The age distribution highlights the vulnerability of infants who are yet to complete their vaccination schedules, emphasizing the critical role of early immunization in disease prevention. Additionally, pertussis is not confined to pediatric populations, as adolescents and adults may also contract the infection due to waning immunity over time. The gender distribution of pertussis cases appears relatively equal, affecting both males and females. Understanding the nuanced epidemiological factors of distribution, age susceptibility, and gender dynamics is pivotal for tailoring effective vaccination strategies and public health interventions to curb the impact of whooping cough on diverse populations.

Prevention:

  1. Vaccination: The most effective way to prevent whooping cough is through vaccination. DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis) vaccines are recommended for children and adults, respectively.

    Vaccinations protect against whooping cough.
    Vaccinations, protect against whooping cough.
  2. Boosters: To maintain immunity, booster shots are essential. Pregnant women are advised to get the Tdap vaccine during each pregnancy to pass on protective antibodies to their newborns.
  3. Isolation: Infected individuals should avoid contact with others, especially infants and pregnant women, to prevent the spread of the bacteria.

Diagnosis Methods of Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

Diagnosing whooping cough (pertussis) typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and an assessment of the patient’s medical history. Here are the key methods used for the diagnosis of whooping cough:

  1. Clinical Evaluation:
    • Symptoms Assessment: The healthcare provider will carefully evaluate the patient’s symptoms, including prolonged coughing fits, the distinctive whooping sound, and post-coughing vomiting.
    • Medical History: A thorough review of the patient’s medical history, including recent exposure to individuals with cough illness, can provide important clues for diagnosis.
  2. Laboratory Tests:
    • PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): This molecular test detects the genetic material of the Bordetella pertussis bacteria. A sample is usually collected from the back of the throat using a swab.
    • Culture: A culture of respiratory secretions, collected through a nasopharyngeal swab, can be used to grow and identify the bacteria. However, culture results take longer compared to PCR.

      Optimal timing for Pertussis diagnostic testing according to the CDC.
      Optimal timing for Pertussis diagnostic testing according to the CDC.
  3. Blood Tests:
    • Serology: Blood tests that measure antibodies to pertussis may be conducted. However, these tests are more useful in the later stages of the illness or for confirming past infection rather than providing a rapid diagnosis.
  4. Rapid Diagnostic Kits:
    • Point-of-Care Testing: Rapid diagnostic kits are available for detecting whooping cough, providing quick results at the point of care.
    • Antigen Detection: Some rapid tests work by detecting specific antigens associated with Bordetella pertussis in respiratory specimens.
  5. Imaging Studies:
    • Chest X-ray: In severe cases or when complications like pneumonia are suspected, a chest X-ray may be performed to assess the condition of the lungs.
Radiological image of Whooping Cough Pertussis
Radiological image of Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

7.Laboratory Confirmation and Reporting:

    • Once the laboratory results are available, confirmation of whooping cough is made based on the detection of the bacteria or its genetic material.

Which Test Kits Are Used to Diagnose Whooping Cough (Pertussis)?

The Respiratory ID-25 Genotyping qPCR Kit is a groundbreaking diagnostic tool meticulously designed to identify and genotype respiratory agents, including the causative agent of Whooping Cough, Bordetella pertussis. Targeting not only Whooping Cough but also 9 bacterial pathogens and 16 viral pathogens, this kit is a comprehensive solution for respiratory infection diagnostics.

Harnessing the power of Real-Time PCR technology, the Respiratory ID-25 Kit enables the simultaneous identification of up to 25 different targets. With a human genome control incorporated for heightened accuracy, this kit provides a precise and reliable diagnostic experience. Utilizing multiple fluorescent channels, it ensures efficient detection, making it a cutting-edge tool for clinicians and healthcare professionals.

The details of the Respiratory ID 25 Genotyping qPCR Kit
The details of the Respiratory ID-25 Genotyping qPCR Kit

The Bordetella pertussis Detection qPCR Kit is at the forefront of diagnostic innovation, dedicated to the accurate identification of Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium responsible for causing Whooping Cough. This kit, meticulously designed for specificity and sensitivity, is a vital tool for healthcare professionals engaged in respiratory infection diagnostics.

Employing state-of-the-art Real-Time PCR technology, this kit allows for precise and rapid detection of Bordetella pertussis DNA. Its targeted approach ensures the reliability of results, aiding clinicians in making informed decisions for patient care. With a focus on efficiency, the kit facilitates timely identification, crucial for effective management and prevention of the spread of Whooping Cough.

REFERENCES

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (n.d.-b). Whooping cough. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/whooping-cough/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20378978

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b, August 4). Signs and symptoms of whooping cough (pertussis). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/about/signs-symptoms.html

Whooping cough (pertussis). European Vaccination Information Portal. (2020, March 13). https://vaccination-info.europa.eu/en/disease-factsheets/whooping-cough-pertussis

professional, C. C. medical. (n.d.-b). Whooping cough (pertussis): Causes, symptoms & prevention. Cleveland Clinic. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15661-whooping-cough-pertussis

 

 

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