What is Measles Virus and How to Use Measles Virus Rapid Test Kit?

What is Measles Virus and How to Use Measles Virus Rapid Test Kit?

13 June 2023

What is Measles Virus and How to Use Measles Virus Rapid Test Kit?

Measles Virus

Measles, a highly contagious viral infection, has long been a cause of concern for public health officials worldwide. The disease, caused by the measles virus (MeV), spreads rapidly through respiratory droplets, making it a significant threat to vulnerable populations. However, with advances in medical technology, the development of rapid test kits has emerged as a crucial tool in detecting the presence of the measles virus quickly and efficiently.

This blog aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the measles virus and shed light on the significance of utilizing measles virus rapid test kits for early diagnosis. We will explore the nature of the measles virus, its transmission, and the symptoms associated with measles infection. Additionally, we will delve into the key features and benefits of measles virus rapid test kits, along with a step-by-step guide on how to use them accurately.

What is Measles Virus?

What is Measles Virus

Measles morbillivirus, often known as the measles virus, belongs to the genus Morbillivirus, family Paramyxoviridae, and subfamily Orthoparamyxovirinae. Measles is a potentially deadly but vaccine-preventable illness [1].

Since ancient times, the rash and other clinical manifestations of the measles virus (MV), one of the most infectious viruses known, have been used to diagnose patients. More than 300 000 people still die from measles each year, primarily from subsequent infections made easier by MV-induced immunosuppression. As a result, the World Health Organization has set eradication as a top priority; this effort has been made more accessible by the availability of a live attenuated vaccine with exceptional effectiveness and safety records [2]. Understanding the nature of the measles virus is essential in implementing effective preventive measures, promoting vaccination, and responding swiftly to outbreaks. We can work towards controlling and eventually eradicating this highly contagious and potentially severe infectious disease through increased awareness and access to accurate information.

What are the Symptoms of Measles?

What are the Symptoms of Measles

The measles virus’ incubation period varies between 8-14 days. Fever, conjunctivitis, cough, and sneezing are the main symptoms. Approximately 90% of patients have Koplick’s patches on their buccal mucosa, which are pathognomic (diagnostic) for measles virus infection. In opposition to the lower molars, these elevated red patches with white centers may be seen. The rashes caused by the measles virus are related to the immune response of T cells to create immunity. These rashes usually appear behind the ear and on the upper face. It then spreads [3].

What is the Measles Virus Rapid Test Kit?

What is the Measles Virus Rapid Test Kit

A measles virus rapid test kit is a diagnostic tool designed to detect the presence of the measles virus in a patient’s sample, typically obtained from respiratory secretions or blood. These test kits utilize various techniques, such as antigen or antibody detection, to quickly and accurately identify the measles virus, enabling healthcare professionals to diagnose measles infection in a timely manner.

There are two main types of measles virus rapid test kits. First, one detects specific proteins or antigens present on the surface of the measles virus. The patient’s sample, such as a throat swab or nasal swab, is collected and applied to the test kit. The second one detects antibodies produced by the patient’s immune system in response to a measles virus infection. The patient’s blood sample is usually used for this type of test.

It’s important to note that while measles virus rapid test kits are useful for initial screening and diagnosis, confirmatory testing by a laboratory is typically recommended to validate the results. This ensures accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of measles cases.

How to use Measles Virus Rapid Test Kit?

Using a measles virus rapid test kit typically involves the following steps:

  1. Sample collection: Depending on the type of rapid test kit, collect the appropriate sample from the patient. This can involve using a throat swab, nasal swab, or a blood sample.
  2. Prepare the sample: If required, prepare the sample according to the instructions provided. This may involve mixing the collected sample with a diluent or buffer solution provided in the kit.
  3. Apply the sample: Using the dropper or another provided tool, carefully transfer the prepared sample onto the designated area of the test cassette.
  4. Wait for the reaction: Allow the test cassette to sit undisturbed for the specified duration mentioned in the instructions. This allows the sample to interact with the reagents present in the test kit.
  5. Interpret the results: After the specified waiting time, observe the test cassette for any visible changes or indications of results. This may involve looking for color changes, lines appearing on test strips, or any other visual signals mentioned in the instructions. Different test kits may have different result indicators, so refer to the specific guidelines provided.
  6. Follow-up and confirmatory testing: If the rapid test indicates a positive result for measles virus infection, it is essential to follow up with confirmatory testing by a laboratory. Consult a healthcare professional or laboratory for further evaluation and guidance.

REFERENCES

[1] R. Cattaneo, M. McChesney, Measles Virus, Editor(s): Brian W.J. Mahy, Marc H.V. Van Regenmortel, Encyclopedia of Virology (Third Edition), Academic Press, 2008, Pages 285-29.

[2] R. Cattaneo, M. McChesney,Measles Virus, Editor(s): Brian W.J. Mahy, Marc H.V. Van Regenmortel, Encyclopedia of Virology (Third Edition), Academic Press, 2008, Pages 285-291.

[3] Roselyn Cerutis, Measles (Rubeola), Editor(s): S.J. Enna, David B. Bylund, xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference, Elsevier, 2007, Pages 1-5.

Figure 1: Matveeva, O. V., & Shabalina, S. A. (2020). Prospects for Using Expression Patterns of Paramyxovirus Receptors as Biomarkers for Oncolytic Virotherapy. Cancers, 12(12), 3659.

Figure 2: https://www.hhs.gov/

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