What is Celiac Disease? How to Use the Celiac Rapid Test Kit? - Vitrosens Biotechnology - Human and Animal Health Rapid Test Kits

What is Celiac Disease? How to Use the Celiac Rapid Test Kit?

25 November 2023

What is Celiac Disease How to Use the Celiac Rapid Test Kitt

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body’s immune system mistakenly targets and attacks its own tissues [1]. In the case of celiac disease, the immune response is triggered by the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, and their derivatives. The exact cause of celiac disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. In this blog, we will dive deep into Celiac Disease and Celiac Rapid Test Kit.

Celiac Disease Effects

For individuals with a genetic predisposition to celiac disease, the ingestion of gluten leads to an immune reaction that primarily targets the small intestine. More specifically, the immune response targets the villi, which are tiny finger-like projections in the lining of the small intestine [1][2]. These villi play a crucial role in absorbing nutrients from food. Over time, the immune system’s attack on the villi causes them to become inflamed and damaged, resulting in a flattening of the intestinal lining. This damage impairs the intestine’s ability to absorb nutrients effectively, leading to malnutrition.

coeliac disease

In Which Countries is the Celiac Disease More Common?

Celiac disease is more common in regions where populations have a higher prevalence of specific genetic markers that increase susceptibility to the condition. It’s important to note that celiac disease can occur in any part of the world, but its prevalence varies widely.

  1. Europe: Celiac disease is relatively more common in many European countries, particularly in populations of European ancestry. Countries like Finland, Sweden, Italy, Ireland, and the United Kingdom have reported higher prevalence rates.
  2. North America: Celiac disease is also fairly common in North America, including the United States and Canada. Rates are influenced by the European ancestry of a significant portion of the population.
  3. Oceania: Australia and New Zealand also have significant rates of celiac disease, largely due to their populations’ European heritage.
  4. Some South American Countries: Countries like Argentina and Brazil have reported higher prevalence rates of celiac disease. This is likely influenced by factors such as European ancestry and changing dietary habits.
  5. Certain Asian Countries: While celiac disease is generally less common in Asian populations, some Asian countries are seeing increasing rates due to changing diets and increased awareness. For instance, urban areas in countries like India and Pakistan are reporting higher prevalence rates.
  6. Middle East: Celiac disease exists in the Middle East, and its prevalence varies across countries. Some Middle Eastern countries like Iran and Turkey have reported cases of celiac disease.
  7. Africa: Celiac disease is traditionally considered less common in African populations, but there’s still ongoing research to understand its prevalence and impact in different regions of the continent.

It’s important to note that celiac disease can affect individuals of any ethnic background, and its prevalence can change over time due to various factors, including genetics, changes in dietary habits, increased awareness, and improved diagnostic methods.

Distribution of the Celiac Disease Around the World

What Are the Symptoms of the Celiac Disease?

The symptoms of celiac disease can vary widely from person to person. Some individuals may experience severe symptoms, while others might have milder or even no apparent symptoms. Common symptoms include:

  1. Digestive Symptoms: These can include abdominal pain, bloating, gas, diarrhea, constipation, and nausea.
  2. Weight Loss and Malnutrition: Due to the body’s inability to absorb nutrients properly, individuals might experience weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and overall malnutrition.
  3. Dermatological Symptoms: Dermatitis herpetiformis, a skin rash characterized by itchy, blistering lesions, is a common symptom in some individuals with celiac disease.

Celiac Disease Symptoms

  1. Anemia: Nutrient malabsorption can lead to iron-deficiency anemia, causing fatigue, weakness, and pallor.
  2. Neurological Symptoms: Some individuals might experience neurological symptoms like headaches, numbness, tingling, and even balance problems.
  3. Bone Health Issues: Osteoporosis and bone fractures can occur due to reduced calcium absorption.
  4. Joint Pain: Joint pain and discomfort might be present in some individuals.

How to Diagnose the Celiac Disease?

Diagnosing celiac disease involves several steps:

  1. Blood Tests: Blood tests are done to check for the presence of specific antibodies, such as anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-IgA) and anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA) [3]. Elevated levels of these antibodies can indicate an immune response to gluten.
  2. Genetic Testing: Genetic testing can identify the presence of certain genes associated with celiac disease. However, having these genes does not guarantee the development of the disease.
  3. Biopsy: If blood tests indicate a high likelihood of celiac disease, a biopsy of the small intestine is usually performed. During an endoscopy, a small tissue sample is taken from the lining of the small intestine to assess the degree of damage to the villi.

How to Diagnose the Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disorder that affects the small intestine’s ability to absorb nutrients due to an immune reaction triggered by gluten consumption. Early diagnosis and strict adherence to a gluten-free diet are crucial for managing symptoms, preventing complications, and improving long-term health outcomes for individuals with celiac disease. Consulting with medical professionals and dietitians is essential for proper management and guidance.

What Are the Treatment Methods of Celiac Disease?

The primary treatment for celiac disease is a lifelong strict gluten-free diet. This means avoiding all sources of gluten, including foods containing wheat, barley, rye, and cross-contaminated items. Adopting a gluten-free diet allows the intestinal lining to heal and symptoms to subside. People with celiac disease often work with registered dietitians to learn about safe food choices and strategies for maintaining proper nutrition while avoiding gluten.

What Are the Treatment Methods of Celiac Disease

Complications and Long-Term Effects Of the Celiac Disease

If left untreated, celiac disease can lead to various complications:

  1. Nutrient Deficiencies: Malabsorption can lead to deficiencies in essential nutrients like vitamins (e.g., B vitamins, vitamin D) and minerals (e.g., iron, calcium) [5].
  2. Osteoporosis: Poor calcium absorption can lead to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures.
  3. Other Autoimmune Disorders: Celiac disease is associated with an increased risk of developing other autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes, thyroid disorders, and autoimmune liver diseases [4].

Long Term Effects of Celiac Disease

  1. Intestinal Damage: Prolonged inflammation and damage to the small intestine can increase the risk of intestinal lymphomas and other serious complications.
  2. Refractory Celiac Disease: In some cases, individuals may not respond to a gluten-free diet, leading to a condition called refractory celiac disease, which requires specialized management [5].

How to Use the Celiac Rapid Test Kit?         

Here’s a general overview of the steps you might expect when using the Celiac Rapid Test Kit:

  1. Read the Instructions: Begin by thoroughly reading the instructions provided in the test kit package. Make sure you understand each step and any precautions mentioned.
  2. Gather Materials: Ensure you have all the necessary materials provided in the kit, which may include test devices, buffer solutions, lancets (for blood sampling), and instructions.
  3. Prepare the Work Area: Create a clean and well-lit workspace to perform the test. This will help ensure accurate results and prevent contamination.
  4. Wash Hands: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before starting the test. This helps maintain hygiene and prevents contamination.
  5. Blood Sample Collection: Most celiac rapid test kits require a small blood sample. Follow the instructions to use the provided lancet to prick your finger and collect a drop of blood. Some kits might have alternative methods, such as using a pipette to collect blood.

How to Use the Celiac Rapid Test Kit

  1. Apply Blood to Test Device: Follow the kit’s instructions to place the blood sample onto the designated area of the test device. This is usually a specific well or strip.
  2. Add Buffer Solution: In some kits, you might need to add a buffer solution or a reagent to initiate the testing process. This solution helps the test react with the blood sample.
  3. Wait for Results: Once you’ve applied the blood and buffer solution, you will need to wait for a specific amount of time, as indicated in the instructions. This waiting period allows the test to develop and show results.
  4. Interpret Results: After the specified waiting time, check the test device for results. Typically, celiac rapid test kits will have a control line and a test line. The presence or absence of lines in these areas will indicate whether the test is positive or negative. The exact interpretation will depend on the design of the kit and the manufacturer’s instructions.
  5. Dispose of Materials: Dispose of used lancets, test devices, and any other disposable materials according to local regulations and the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  6. Read the Manual Thoroughly: Always refer to the manual provided in the kit for any specific steps, troubleshooting, and interpretation of results. If you have any doubts or questions, consult the manual or seek professional advice.

It’s important to note that celiac rapid test kits are designed to provide preliminary results and are not a substitute for a formal diagnosis by a medical professional. If you receive a positive result from a rapid test, it’s crucial to follow up with a healthcare provider for confirmation and further testing, such as blood tests and biopsies, to definitively diagnose celiac disease.

REFERENCES

[1] Lindfors, K., Ciacci, C., Kurppa, K. et al. Coeliac disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers 5, 3 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-018-0054-z.

[2] Fasano A, Catassi C. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology 2001;120:636 –651.

[3] American Gastroenterological Association. Medical position statement: celiac sprue. Gastroenterology 2001;120:1522–1525.

[4] Gee S. On the coeliac affection. St Bart Hosp Rep 1890;24:17– 20.

[5] Green, P. H., & Jabri, B. (2003). Coeliac disease. The Lancet, 362(9381), 383–391. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(03)14027-5

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Vitrosens Biotechnology is a high-tech company in Turkey founded for the development, manufacture, and delivery of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVD) to the world.
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