What are the Types of Hormones and How to Detect the Hormone Level?
Initiating and regulating many of our body functions, hormones play a vital role in the maintenance of the physical and mental balance of our bodies. Hormones are secreted by multiple organs and glands located throughout the body, which together form the endocrine system and regulate various body functions including metabolism, growth, fertility, heart rate, and neural development. With major glands such as the pituitary gland, thymus, pineal gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes; the endocrine system is composed of a complex network of glands, hormones, and receptors. When a hormone is imbalanced as a result of injury, infection, genetic disorder, disease, or tumor; it can have significant impact on the function of many other hormones, organs, and systems in the body. Occurring due to the imbalance caused by the hypersecretion or hyposecretion of certain hormones, hormonal diseases affect millions of people worldwide. Many common hormonal diseases are readily identifiable and easily treatable but may have serious adverse effects if left undiagnosed or untreated. In fact, Crafa et al. (2021) cites that endocrinal diseases constitute the fifth leading cause of death in the world. Altogether, regular screening of hormone levels and prompt diagnosis of hormonal disorders remains critical for the initiation of timely and proper treatment. Read along to learn more about some of the major types of hormones and their detection.
What are hormones?
Found in all multicellular organisms, hormones are chemical messengers which facilitate an internal communication between glands and other target organs located in distant parts of the body via the bloodstream. Accordingly, hormones can regulate the function of target organs and the secretion of other hormones. Moreover, hormones are responsible for the management of numerous bodily processes and the maintenance of homeostasis. There are currently thought to be more than 70 hormones in the human body.
What are pancreatic hormones and how are their levels detected?
Responsible for the functions of the digestive system and metabolism, pancreatic hormones include insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin and ghrelin. Among these, insulin and glucagon are major regulators of the metabolism of carbohydrates. By lowering and increasing the blood sugar levels respectively, insulin and glucagon maintain a stable plasma glucose level in the human body. Diabetes, which is characterized by higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, emerges due to the inability of the body to produce or utilize its own insulin. Diabetes is among the most common and consequential endocrinal diseases. According to IDF Diabetes Atlas, more than 537 million adults of 20 to 79 years were living with diabetes in 2021, which is expected to rise to 643 million by 2030 and 783 million by 2045. Moreover, diabetes was responsible for 6.7 million deaths in 2021. With timely diagnosis and treatment which may involve insulin, a diabetic diet, exercise, or medication, the disease can be managed, and the development of complications can be prevented.
HbA1c tests, fasting plasma glucose tests, and oral glucose tolerance tests can aid in the diagnosis of prediabetes and diabetes. HbA1c tests, such as our Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) Rapid Test Kit, determines the average blood glucose levels of the patient for the past two to three months by measuring the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) in the blood. Unlike fasting plasma glucose tests which require 8 hours of fasting before the tests, no fasting is required for HbA1c tests. Measuring the tolerance of the body against a standard amount of glucose, oral glucose tolerance tests can also be useful in the diagnosis of diabetes.
What are thyroid hormones and how are their levels detected?
The thyroid gland produces two hormones, which are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Together, these hormones play an important role in regulation of growth, weight, energy levels, body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. Due to various factors such as iodine deficiency and genetics, the thyroid gland may produce too much or too little of these hormones, which may respectively indicate hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
Although thyroid dysfunction affects millions of people worldwide, it can typically be managed by medication, diet, and exercise upon timely diagnosis. Alongside clinical evaluation, thyroid function can be determined via blood tests such as our Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Rapid Test Kit, Triiodothyronine (T3) Rapid Test Kit, Thyroxine (T4) Rapid Test Kit, Free T3 (FT3) Rapid Test Kit, and Free T4 (FT4) Rapid Test Kit.
What are reproductive hormones and how are their levels detected?
Reproductive hormones are instrumental for fertility, pregnancy, puberty, menstruation, menopause, sex drive, sperm production, and other functions of the reproductive system. While estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone constitute the major hormones maintaining the reproductive system and fertility in women and men, many other hormones including luteinizing-hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) play vital roles in the regulation of ovulation, fertility, and fetal development. Moreover, as certain hormones such as HCG and 𝝱-HCG are exclusively secreted during pregnancy in healthy individuals, they can function as early markers of pregnancy.
Abnormal levels of one or multiple of these hormones may result in issues with fertility, sexual development, menstruation, and pregnancy. Prompt diagnosis is essential for the initiation of proper treatment, the management of symptoms, and the prevention of long-term complications. Levels of reproductive hormones can easily be determined through blood tests. Our robust array of lateral flow immunoassays, including Progesterone (PROG) Rapid Test Kit, Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Rapid Test Kit, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Rapid Test Kit, Testosterone (TES) Rapid Test Kit, Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Rapid Test Kit, and Estradiol (E2) Rapid Test Kit can deliver critical information for the evaluation of fertility, ovulation, and other aspects of reproductive health in minutes. On the other hand, our 𝝱-HCG Rapid Test Kit can aid in the early determination of pregnancy and the diagnosis gynecological inflammation, ectopic pregnancy, chorionic diseases.
Crafa, A., Calogero, A. E., Cannarella, R., Mongioi’, L. M., Condorelli, R. A., Greco, E. A., Aversa, A., & La Vignera, S. (2021, June 16). The Burden of Hormonal Disorders: A Worldwide Overview With a Particular Look in Italy. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.694325
Taylor, P. N., Albrecht, D., Scholz, A., Gutierrez-Buey, G., Lazarus, J. H., Dayan, C. M., & Okosieme, O. E. (2018, March 23). Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 14(5), 301–316. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2018.18