What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? How to use STDs Rapid Test Kit? - Vitrosens Biotechnology - Human and Animal Health Rapid Test Kits

What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? How to use STDs Rapid Test Kit?


What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases? How to use STDs Rapid Test Kit?

What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Acquired by more than 1 million people every day, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a massive impact on human sexual and reproductive health. According to the World Health Organization, more than 30 different bacteria, viruses, and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse. Although curable, infections such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis affect millions yearly. On the other hand, many people living with incurable infections such as HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and some forms of viral hepatitis are at risk of developing severe complications. Given the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in managing these infections, rapid test kits are becoming increasingly available to diagnose different types of STDs. Read along to learn more about common STDs and their diagnosis.

STDs and their diagnosis

What is Syphilis?

What is Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. It can also transmit congenitally from an infected mother to their unborn child or through direct genital-to-genital contact alongside oral, vaginal, or anal sex. Syphilis develops in stages with differing symptoms.  In its primary stage, syphilis may cause the appearance of small, round, painless, and infectious sores on the mouth, genitals, or rectum, depending on where Treponema pallidum has entered the body. If left untreated, the infection progresses into the secondary stage, which may present with symptoms such as sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, headache, fever, fatigue, weight loss, joint ache, hair loss, and a non-itching rash. The secondary stage of syphilis may be followed by a latent stage, in which the symptoms of the previous stages disappear. This stage may last for years. If left untreated, the infection may lead to the development of many life-threatening complications, such as organ damage, internal bleeding, dementia, meningitis, neurosyphilis, stroke, and heart disease. While syphilis is easy to cure with penicillin and other antibiotic treatments, timely diagnosis is critical to detect the infection in its early stages. Alongside microscopy, professional and at-home tests are available to assist in diagnosing syphilis. In addition, rapid antibody tests, such as our Anti-Syphilis Rapid Test Kit, allow for a simple and quick method to check for and confirm syphilis in blood samples.

What is Gonorrhea?

What is Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The infection may affect the mouth, the genitals, or the rectum, depending on where the bacteria enter the body. Gonorrhea can transmit congenitally during birth or through different forms of sexual contacts, such as vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Although many people infected with gonorrhea do not experience any symptoms, the infection may commonly present with painful urination, penile discharge, or testicular pain in men and burning with urination, vaginal discharge, bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain in women. If left untreated, it may lead to complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymis inflammation, and fertility issues. It can also spread to the joints or heart valves. Although gonorrhea was originally diagnosed via Gram stain and culture, PCR-based and antigen-detection methods are becoming more common. Rapid antigen tests, such as our Gonorrhea Rapid Test Kit, can quickly check for gonorrhea-specific proteins in urine or vaginal swab samples and deliver highly accurate results in minutes.

What is Viral Hepatitis?

What is Viral Hepatitis 1

Viral hepatitis refers to infections with hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E. Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of human liver inflammation. Alongside unprotected sex, hepatitis A (HAV) can spread through contaminated feces or contaminated belongings such as needles, razors, or toothbrushes. Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) can transmit congenitally during delivery and through contact with contaminated bodily fluids. Among these viruses, hepatitis A (HAV) is known to cause acute and short-term disease, while hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) more often lead to chronic and long-term disease. Viral hepatitis typically presents with symptoms such as jaundice, dark urine, pale stool, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fatigue, a low-level fever, and weight loss. However, people with chronic infections may not develop symptoms for years until the infection impairs liver function. Without timely treatment and care, viral hepatitis can result in severe complications such as cirrhosis, chronic liver disease, liver failure, and liver cancer.

Thus, despite the efficacy of vaccination, early diagnosis of viral hepatitis remains critical for preventing severe disease and death. Liver function tests, polymerase chain reaction tests (PCR), antigen tests, serological tests, imaging tests, and liver biopsies are among the available methods used to diagnose viral hepatitis. For example, rapid antigen tests, such as our HBsAg Rapid Test Kit and HBsAg/HCV/HIV/TP Rapid Test Kit, target pathogen-specific proteins, detect the presence of viral hepatitis alongside other forms of STDs, and deliver results in minutes. On the other hand, antibody tests such as our Anti-HAV IgMAnti-HBs, and Anti-HCV rapid test kits detect the presence of antibodies against hepatitis A, B, and C to detect recent and past viral hepatitis infections.

What is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?

What is Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a chronic, potentially fatal condition caused by a retrovirus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Spreading through bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, and breast milk, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) creates immunodeficiency against infections and cancer activity by damaging and impairing the function of immune cells. Without early diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy, HIV can develop into acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which typically presents with certain cancers, infections, and other severe long-term complications. The early phase of HIV is characterized by flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, rash, myalgia, swollen lymph nodes, headache, nausea, and sore throat. A clinical latency stage with minimal or non-specific symptoms may follow this stage. Although the clinical latency stage may last for years, if left untreated, it progresses into AIDS in its final stage.

AIDS in its final stage

While HIV-positive people can have long and normal lives with antiretroviral therapy, early diagnosis is crucial for the prevention of the development of AIDS. Antigen tests, antibody tests, and nucleic acid tests (NATs) are available to diagnose HIV/AIDS. Rapid antigen and antibody tests, such as our Anti-HIV (1/2) Rapid Test Kit and HIV Ag/Ab Combo Rapid Test Kit, allow for a convenient, simple, and accurate method of screening for HIV. Moreover, with multiplex assays, such as our HBsAg/Anti-HIV (1/2) Combo Rapid Test Kit and HBsAg/HCV/HIV/TP Rapid Test Kit, it is possible to check for other common STDs alongside HIV in minutes simultaneously.


Vitrosens Biotechnology is a high-tech company in Turkey founded for the development, manufacture, and delivery of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVD) to the world.
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Vitrosens Biotechnology is a high-tech company in Turkey founded for the development, manufacture, and delivery of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVD) to the world.
Human Health
Animal Health
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