Malaria Testing Evolution: The Role of P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kits in Early Detection - Vitrosens Biotechnology - Human and Animal Health Rapid Test Kits

Malaria Testing Evolution: The Role of P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kits in Early Detection


As a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that continues to impact millions globally, the prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for reducing transmission and preventing associated mortality and morbidity. The advent of innovative diagnostic devices employing various methods has made malaria diagnostic solutions more accessible and adaptable worldwide. Nevertheless, as different testing options provide unique benefits based on infection epidemiology, testing accessibility, and regional control strategies, each diagnostic method holds significant importance for public health and clinical research. Continue reading to discover more about malaria, its transmission modes, life cycle, symptoms, and diagnostic approaches.

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What Underlies Malaria?

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites from the genus Plasmodium, which are part of the phylum Apicomplexa. Though more than 200 species of Plasmodium have been identified infecting reptiles, birds, and mammals, only five species are known to infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), Plasmodium malaria (P. malariae), Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax), Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale), and Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi). Malaria is transmitted between humans by the bites of female mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. Once inside the human body, the parasites travel to and grow within the liver. After maturing, they re-enter the bloodstream, infect red blood cells, and multiply until the host cells rupture, releasing more parasites into the bloodstream and perpetuating the cycle. Some Plasmodium species can remain dormant in the liver for several months or even years. However, when the parasites enter the bloodstream, they infect and destroy healthy blood cells, leading to the development of malaria symptoms.

Figure 2: Life cycle of the Malaria Parasite
Figure 2: Life cycle of the Malaria Parasite

What are The Symptoms of Malaria?

Malaria symptoms typically emerge within 7 to 30 days after being exposed to the parasite. The severity and nature of the symptoms can vary depending on several factors, including the patient’s age, overall health, medical history, and the specific type of Plasmodium parasite causing the infection. Some patients might experience mild or no symptoms, especially if they have a history of malaria infections or have been using preventive medication. Additionally, certain Plasmodium species, such as P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, can remain dormant in the host’s body for extended periods. For example, P. vivax and P. ovale can stay in the liver for several years, while P. malariae can persist in the bloodstream for decades. If left untreated, these dormant infections can lead to relapses after long periods without noticeable symptoms.

Figure 3: Common symptoms of Malaria
Figure 3: Common symptoms of Malaria

Malaria often manifests with flu-like symptoms including fever, chills, sweating, headaches, cough, fatigue, muscle pain, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. As the infection progresses, it can cause jaundice, an enlarged liver, rapid breathing, and anemia. Fever and other symptoms may occur in cyclical episodes that come and go. Among the different types of Plasmodium, P. malariae is the most common cause of severe disease and complications related to malaria. In severe cases, the parasites can damage the patient’s internal organs, leading to severe anemia, hematuria, impaired consciousness, metabolic acidosis, blood clotting problems, and seizures. Without prompt treatment, these symptoms can quickly escalate to life-threatening complications such as liver failure, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, severe dehydration, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and coma, or even result in death.

How Common is Malaria?

Malaria is a significant global health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Here are some key points about its prevalence:

  1. Global Impact: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were an estimated 241 million malaria cases worldwide in 2020.
  2. Deaths: In the same year, malaria caused approximately 627,000 deaths, with a significant proportion of these occurring in children under the age of five.
  3. Geographical Distribution: Malaria is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for about 95% of malaria cases and 96% of malaria deaths globally. It is also present in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and parts of the Middle East and Oceania.
  4. High-Risk Populations: Certain groups are at higher risk, including young children, pregnant women, travelers coming from areas with no malaria, and people living with HIV/AIDS.
  5. Plasmodium Species: There are five species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi. P. falciparum is the most prevalent and deadly species, particularly in Africa.
  6. Preventive Measures: Efforts to combat malaria include the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, antimalarial medications, and ongoing research into vaccines, such as the RTS, and S/AS01 malaria vaccine, which has shown promise in recent trials.

While significant progress has been made in reducing the global malaria burden over the past two decades, it remains a major public health challenge in many parts of the world.

Figure 4: Areas Affected By Malaria
Figure 4: Areas Affected By Malaria

How is Malaria Transmitted?

Malaria cannot be transmitted directly from person to person. The primary mode of transmission is through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes, which have previously fed on the blood of a person with the parasite. When such a mosquito bites a person, it injects sporozoites from its salivary glands into the person’s bloodstream. These sporozoites travel to the liver, where they undergo asexual multiplication, a process known as schizogony, resulting in the formation of merozoites. The merozoites then leave the liver and enter the bloodstream, infecting red blood cells. Inside the red blood cells, the merozoites digest hemoglobin and develop into trophozoites. Like the liver stage, trophozoites undergo schizogony, producing more merozoites. When the red blood cells rupture, these merozoites are released and go on to infect other red blood cells.

Some merozoites develop into male and female gametocytes, which are ingested by an Anopheles mosquito during its next blood meal. Inside the mosquito, the gametocytes undergo gametogenesis, forming gametes that fuse to create a zygote. The zygote develops into an oocyst, which eventually bursts to release hundreds of sporozoites. These sporozoites migrate to the mosquito’s salivary glands, ready to infect a new human host, thus continuing the life cycle of the parasite.

While the primary transmission route for malaria is through Anopheles mosquito bites, the disease can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her child (vertical transmission), through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or shared needles.

Figure 5: Malaria Transmission Cycle
Figure 5: Malaria Transmission Cycle

How is Malaria Diagnosed?

Malaria continues to be a significant global health concern, with millions of cases reported annually. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial in managing this disease and preventing severe complications and fatalities. In this context, the innovative Malaria P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kit by our stands out as a groundbreaking tool in the fight against malaria.

Traditionally, malaria diagnosis has relied heavily on microscopic examination of blood smears, which requires skilled technicians and sophisticated laboratory infrastructure. While effective, this method is time-consuming and not always feasible in remote or resource-limited settings. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have revolutionized malaria diagnosis by offering a quicker, easier, and more accessible solution.

The Innovative Approach of Vitrosens Biotechnology

As a leader in diagnostic solutions, we at Vitrosens Biotechnology have developed the RapidFor Malaria P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kit, designed to provide accurate and timely detection of Plasmodium falciparum antigens in human blood samples. This lateral flow immunochromatographic assay targets two specific antigens: lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and histidine-rich protein II (HRP2), which are indicative of malaria infection.
Key Features and Benefits
  1. Dual-Antigen Detection: The inclusion of both pLDH and HRP2 antigens ensures high sensitivity and specificity, improving the likelihood of detecting falciparum even at low parasite densities.
  2. Rapid Results: The test provides results within 15 minutes, significantly faster than traditional microscopy. This speed is critical for initiating prompt treatment, especially in severe cases.
  3. Ease of Use: The test kit is designed for use in various settings, from well-equipped laboratories to remote field clinics. It requires minimal training, making it accessible to healthcare workers in diverse environments.
  4. No Need for Specialized Equipment: Unlike microscopic diagnosis, the rapid test does not require sophisticated laboratory equipment, making it ideal for use in rural and resource-limited areas.
  5. High Stability and Shelf Life: The test kit is stable at a wide range of temperatures (2~30°C) and has a long shelf life, ensuring reliability and availability even in challenging conditions.

How It Works

The RapidFor Malaria P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kit utilizes a lateral flow sandwich assay to detect malaria antigens. Here’s a brief overview of the test procedure:

  1. Sample Collection: A blood sample is collected via fingerstick or venipuncture.
  2. Application: The sample is added to the test cassette along with a buffer solution.
  3. Detection: If malaria antigens are present, they bind to specific antibodies on the test strip, forming visible lines on the cassette.
  4. Interpretation: The presence of lines at the test regions indicates a positive result for either pLDH / HRP2, or both, while a control line confirms the test has worked correctly.

Performance and Reliability

Our RapidFor Malaria P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kit has demonstrated excellent performance in clinical evaluations. It offers a high level of accuracy, with minimal cross-reactivity with other pathogens, ensuring reliable results. Additionally, the kit has been rigorously tested for quality control, ensuring consistent performance across different batches and conditions.


The RapidFor Malaria P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kit represents a significant advancement in malaria diagnostics, combining speed, accuracy, and ease of use. By enabling early detection and timely treatment, our innovative tool has the potential to significantly reduce the burden of malaria worldwide. Its application in various healthcare settings underscores its versatility and importance in the global fight against malaria. For more information on the RapidFor Malaria P.f. pLDH/HRP2 Rapid Test Kit, contact us at


Vitrosens Biotechnology is a high-tech company in Turkey founded for the development, manufacture, and delivery of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVD) to the world.
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Vitrosens Biotechnology is a high-tech company in Turkey founded for the development, manufacture, and delivery of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVD) to the world.
Human Health
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