H. pylori Explained: Rapid Antigen Testing for a Top Global Infectious Disease - Vitrosens Biotechnology - Human and Animal Health Rapid Test Kits

H. pylori Explained: Rapid Antigen Testing for a Top Global Infectious Disease


When we think of infectious diseases, we often envision viruses and parasites. However, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide is caused by Helicobacter pylori, or H. pylori for short. This tiny microbe has a significant impact on human health, affecting millions of people around the globe. In this blog post, we will delve into the world of H. pylori, exploring what it is, how it affects our bodies, and the methods used to diagnose and manage this common infection.


Understanding Helicobacter Pylori

The Bacterium

  1. pylori is a type of gram-negative bacteria that takes up residence in the lining of the stomach about half of all humans [1]. It’s a curved or spiral-shaped bacterium, which is one of the reasons it’s called a “helico” (meaning spiral) bacterium. H. pylori is highly prevalent as a global infectious disease and has been categorized as a Group 1 carcinogen by both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
  2. pylori is primarily transmitted through interpersonal contact and has two main routes of transmission [2]. The most common mode of transmission is person-to-person contact, often within families or close communities. This can occur through direct oral contact, such as kissing (oral-oral transmission), or via contaminated hands or objects transferring the bacteria from an infected person’s stool to another person’s mouth (fecal-oral transmission) [2].
Figure 1: Transmission of H.pylori Infection
Figure 1: Transmission of H.pylori Infection


While less common, H. pylori can also be acquired through the consumption of food or water that is contaminated with the bacterium. This mode of transmission is more likely in regions with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. Overall, practicing good hygiene, particularly proper handwashing, and maintaining sanitary conditions can help reduce the risk of H. pylori transmission.



The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection varies significantly across regions and populations. In developing countries with lower socioeconomic status, infection rates can be as high as 70-90% among adults, while developed countries with better sanitation tend to have lower prevalence, typically below 40% [3]. H. pylori is more commonly acquired in childhood or adolescence and tends to persist if not treated. Factors such as hygiene practices, socioeconomic status, and age influence its prevalence. While access to antibiotic treatment has led to declines in some developed countries, H. pylori infection remains a global health concern, especially in areas with limited healthcare and sanitation facilities.

Figure 2: H.pylori Infection Rate All Over the World
Figure 2: H.pylori Infection Rate All Over the World


Health Implications and Symptoms of H.pylori

Helicobacter pylori, often abbreviated as H. pylori, is a type of bacteria that can infect the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine. It is a common bacterial infection, and many people carry it without experiencing any symptoms. However, H. pylori infection can lead to various health implications and symptoms in some individuals. Here are some of the key health implications and symptoms associated with H. pylori infection:


pylori infection is a leading cause of gastritis, which is the inflammation of the stomach lining. Gastritis can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting.

Peptic Ulcers

pylori infection is a significant risk factor for the development of peptic ulcers. Peptic ulcers are open sores that can form in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine) [4]. Symptoms of peptic ulcers may include burning or gnawing abdominal pain, which can be worse when the stomach is empty or at night. Some individuals may also experience weight loss or black, tarry stools due to bleeding [4].

Gastric Cancer

Although most people with H. pylori infection do not develop cancer, the bacterium is a known risk factor for the development of gastric (stomach) cancer. It is estimated that long-term infection with H. pylori may increase the risk of gastric cancer.

Figure 3: Possible Complications of H.Pylori Infections
Figure 3: Possible Complications of H.Pylori Infections


Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori)

Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation and various diagnostic tests. The choice of diagnostic method may depend on factors such as the patient’s symptoms, medical history, and the availability of specific tests. Here are the primary diagnostic methods for H. pylori:

1. Non-Invasive Tests:

a. Blood Tests: Blood tests can detect the presence of antibodies against H. pylori in the bloodstream. These antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to the infection. Blood tests are relatively simple and non-invasive but may not distinguish between current and past infections [5].
b. Breath Tests: Urea breath tests are commonly used to diagnose H. pylori. During this test, the patient drinks a solution containing a special type of urea labeled with a harmless radioactive or non-radioactive marker. If H. pylori is present in the stomach, it breaks down the urea, releasing carbon dioxide [5]. The patient breathes into a collection bag, and the exhaled carbon dioxide is analyzed to detect the infection. This test can determine if the infection is currently active.
c. Stool Antigen Test: This test detects H. pylori antigens in a stool sample. Antigens are substances produced by the bacteria that trigger an immune response. Stool antigen tests are non-invasive and can be used to confirm the presence of active infection.

2. Invasive Tests:

a. Endoscopy with Biopsy: In cases where more invasive testing is needed or if there are concerns about complications like peptic ulcers or gastric cancer, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy may be performed [5]. During this procedure, a flexible tube with a camera (endoscope) is passed through the mouth and into the stomach. Biopsy samples are collected from the stomach lining and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori bacteria. This method allows for direct visualization and confirmation of the infection.
b. Histology: Biopsy samples collected during endoscopy can also be examined under a microscope for the presence of H. pylori bacteria and signs of gastritis or other related conditions [5].
c. Rapid Test: This is another test that can be performed during an endoscopy. A small tissue sample is taken from the stomach lining, and it is exposed to a urea solution. If H. pylori is present, it will produce urease, an enzyme that breaks down urea, causing a color change in the test solution within minutes.

3. Molecular Tests:

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other molecular methods can detect the DNA of H. pylori in biopsy samples, stool, or saliva. These tests are highly sensitive and specific but are often reserved for research or cases where other methods have yielded inconclusive results.

The choice of diagnostic method depends on various factors, including the patient’s clinical presentation, medical history, and the availability of specific tests in the healthcare setting. Once diagnosed, H. pylori infection can be treated with antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the bacteria and manage related conditions. It’s important to consult a healthcare provider for appropriate testing and treatment if H. pylori infection is suspected.

How to Use H. pylori Ag Rapid Test Kit?

The RapidFor H. pylori Ag Rapid Test Kit is a medical diagnostic tool designed to detect the presence of antigens associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the human body. Using the RapidFor H. pylori Rapid Test Kit typically involves a few simple steps. These test kits are designed for quick and easy detection of H. pylori antigens in stool samples. Please note that the specific instructions may vary slightly depending on the brand and type of test kit, so it’s essential to follow the manufacturer’s instructions provided with your kit. Here are the general steps for using the RapidFor H. pylori Rapid Test Kit.

Materials You Will Need:

RapidFor H. pylori Rapid Test Kit

– Timer or clock


  1. Read the Instructions: Start by carefully reading the instructions provided with the test kit. Familiarize yourself with the kit components and the recommended procedure.
  2. Prepare the Sample: Depending on the type of test kit, you may need to collect a sample. Common sample types include stool. Follow the kit’s instructions to collect the sample correctly.
  3. Prepare the Test Cassette: Open the test kit and remove the test cassette from its packaging. Ensure you do this just before conducting the test to prevent contamination or damage.
  4. Apply the Sample: Using the provided applicator apply the collected sample (stool) to the designated area on the test device according to the instructions. Be careful not to over-apply or under-apply the sample.


Figure 4: Illustration of Sample Collection and Application Steps
Figure 4: Illustration of Sample Collection and Application Steps


  1. Wait for the Results: After applying the sample, wait for the specified amount of time as indicated in the instructions. Typically, results for rapid tests are available within a few minutes. Set a timer or use a clock to ensure accuracy.
  2. Read the Results: Examine the test device for the presence of lines, colors, or other indicators as specified in the instructions. Most test kits provide a control line and a test line. The presence or absence of lines or changes in color will determine the result.
  3. Interpret the Results: Interpret the results according to the instructions. Common results may include “positive” (indicating the presence of H. pylori antigens), “negative” (indicating their absence), or “invalid” (indicating a problem with the test, such as inadequate sample application or a malfunction).
  4. Record the Results: If necessary, record the results for future reference or to share with a healthcare provider.

If you receive a positive result or have concerns about your health, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare provider for further evaluation and guidance on treatment, if necessary. Always follow the specific instructions provided with your H. pylori Ag Rapid Test Kit for accurate and reliable results.


[1] Suzuki, H., Warren, R., & Marshall, B. (Eds.). (2016). Helicobacter pylori. Springer.

[2] Mladenova, I., & Durazzo, M. (2018). Transmission of Helicobacter pylori. Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica, 64(3), 251-254.

[3] Hooi, J. K., Lai, W. Y., Ng, W. K., Suen, M. M., Underwood, F. E., Tanyingoh, D., … & Ng, S. C. (2017). Global prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology, 153(2), 420-429.

[4] Graham, D. Y. (2014). History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG, 20(18), 5191.

[5] Cardos AI, Maghiar A, Zaha DC, Pop O, Fritea L, Miere F, Cavalu S. Evolution of Diagnostic Methods for Helicobacter pylori Infections: From Traditional Tests to High Technology, Advanced Sensitivity and Discrimination Tools. Diagnostics. 2022; 12(2):508. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020508




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Vitrosens Biotechnology is a high-tech company in Turkey founded for the development, manufacture, and delivery of in vitro diagnostic devices (IVD) to the world.
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