Does It Use a Test Kit to Detect The Monkeypox Virus?
You all know, or at least heard, about the latest news explaining monkeypox outbreaks all over the globe. Unfortunately, we as humankind could face another pandemic right after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: the Monkeypox Virus pandemic. As always, in the course of a pandemic, the early and correct detection of who has the infection is crucial for the control of spread and curbing the pandemic. In this paper, you can find answers to “Is there any way to detect monkeypox virus infection?” and “Does it use a test kit to detect the monkeypox virus?”.
What is the monkeypox virus and what are the signs of infection?
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus from the Poxviridae family’s Ortho-poxvirus (OPXV) genus. It is a less dangerous and infectious cousin of the smallpox virus. Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus infection, with symptoms and signs like smallpox.
Monkeypox is spread mostly through contact with the blood, body fluids, and lesion material of infected animals and humans, as well as contaminated items. Even though rodents are assumed to be its major hosts, the monkeypox virus was named following its discovery in 1958 in monkey research colonies. The first human case of monkeypox was detected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970, amid the height of smallpox eradication efforts.
Until 2003, the propagation of the monkeypox virus was restricted to the tropical rainforest regions of Central and West Africa. While the virus was periodically introduced to other locations via international trade or travel after 2003, its spread was quickly stopped. Monkeypox symptoms are comparable to smallpox symptoms. The first symptoms are fever, headache, muscle aches, back pain, swollen lymph nodes, chills, and tiredness. A rash appears one to five days after the initial symptoms and spreads over the body. The rash evolved from little blisters to scabs before falling off. Between initial exposure and the start of symptoms, the incubation period is 5 to 21 days, and symptoms normally last 2 to 4 weeks. The rash can play a role in the detection of the monkeypox virus, but it is not an early diagnosis and does not differentiate the disease from the Poxviridae family illnesses like smallpox.
What is a monkeypox virus PCR test kit?
PCR test kits are one of the nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). As the name of these tests suggests, the methodology behind the detection is based on nucleic acid amplification. In this method of testing, a specific part of the virus is selected as the target region. In the fluorescence PCR technological approach, scientists create primers and Taqman probes for specific regions of the Monkeypox virus and detect them using a fluorescent PCR device to detect Monkeypox virus nucleic acids. By using the PCR test method, the sensitivity is increased because the target region is 2 times copied in each cycle (amplification). That is why the PCR method is considered the “golden standard”.
What is a monkeypox virus rapid antigen test kit?
Rapid antigen tests detect pathogen-specific proteins in human samples and provide results in real time. This technology has been used to detect a variety of infections, and quick antigen tests for monkeypox are remarkably like those used to detect strep, influenza, malaria, and HIV.
Monkeypox virus rapid antigen tests are rapid chromatographic immunoassays that identify the presence of monkeypox-specific proteins, or antigens, in human samples. These tests typically use a sandwich immunodetection approach in lateral flow test format and target the surface tubule protein of monkeypox, which is one of the virus’s most abundantly produced structural proteins.
Unlike molecular tests such as PCR, which identify viral genetic material, rapid antigen testing for monkeypox virus does not necessitate the collection and processing of samples in a laboratory. Furthermore, whereas PCR tests might take several days to get results, quick antigen tests produce results in 15 to 30 minutes.
What is a monkeypox virus rapid antibody test kit?
A rapid antibody test identifies immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies produced by the metabolism of individuals in response to monkeypox virus specific antigens. IgM antibodies are the first antibodies to be detected in monkeypox infections, so they are detectable at the start of the disease. IgG antibodies come later in the blood and remain in your blood long after the monkeypox infection has cleared. Thus, the results of these immunoglobulin detection tests show whether the person was previously infected, is presently infected, or has recovered.
What is a monkeypox virus ELISA test kit?
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, often known as ELISA or EIA, is a blood test that identifies and quantifies antibodies. This test can identify whether you have antibodies to certain infectious illnesses.
ELISA is frequently used as a screening tool before ordering more in-depth tests. If you have indications or symptoms of any of the illnesses listed above, your doctor may recommend this test. If your doctor wants to rule out any of these illnesses, he or she may prescribe this test.
The ELISA test is easy and simple. You’ll most likely be asked to sign a consent form, and your doctor should explain why the test is being performed.
A blood sample is required for the ELISA test. First, a healthcare worker will use an antiseptic to clean your arm. A tourniquet, or band, will then be wrapped around your arm to apply pressure and induce your veins to bulge with blood. Following that, a needle will be inserted into one of your veins to extract a small sample of blood. After collecting enough blood, the needle will be removed, and a little bandage will be placed on your arm where the needle was. To limit blood flow, you will be instructed to apply pressure to the area where the needle was entered for a few minutes. This procedure should be painless, but your arm may throb a little afterward.
The blood sample will be analyzed at a laboratory. A technician will put the sample into a petri dish with the exact antigen associated with the ailment for which you are being tested at the lab. If your blood has antigen-specific antibodies, the two will bind together. The technician will determine this by adding an enzyme to the petri dish and seeing how your blood and the antigen respond.
If the contents of the dish change color, you may have the disorder. The amount of change caused by the enzyme allows the technician to identify the presence and amount of antibody.
What are the current diagnostic strategies for monkeypox virus?
Currently, many manufacturers are doing their research to develop the diagnostic kits for the monkeypox virus. Our RapidFor™ Monkeypox Virus Rapid Antigen Test Kit, RapidFor™ Monkeypox Virus Rapid Antibody Test Kit, and RapidFor™ Monkeypox Virus Detection Kit (PCR-Fluorescent Probe) will be available soon. Stay tuned.